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These are the most frequently asked questions about the Order of Malta.

1) What is the Order of Malta?

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and Malta, better known as the Sovereign Order of Malta, has a two-fold nature. It is one of the most ancient Catholic Religious Orders, founded in Jerusalem in around 1048. At the same time it has always been recognised by nations as an independent subject of international law. The Order's mission is summed up in its motto "Tuitio Fidei et Obsequium Pauperum" - defence of the faith and assistance to the suffering.

2) What do we mean by saying that it is a religious order?

The Order was born as a monastic community inspired by St. John the Baptist. This community, which was created by Amalfitan Merchants around 1050, ran a hospice providing care and shelter for pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 1113 it received formal acknowledgement as a religious Order from Pope Paschal II. Before the loss of the island of Malta (1798) most of the knights were religious, having taken the three vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.

Today, although some members of the Order are professed knights (having taken the three vows of poverty, chastity and obedience), others have pronounced only the promise of obedience. Most of the Order's 13,500 knights and dames are lay members. Although they have not pronounced any religious vow, they are all devoted to the exercise of Christian virtue and charity, and committed to developing their spirituality within the Church and to expending their energies in serving the Faith and assisting others.

3) Is it a military order?

The Order had to become military to protect the pilgrims and the sick and to defend the Christian territories in the Holy Land. The Order ceased to carry out this function when it lost Malta (1798). Today the Order preserves only the military traditions.

4) Is it a chivalrous order?

Traditionally Knights of the Order belonged to chivalric and noble families of the Christian world. The Order is still a chivalric order today as it has maintained the values of chivalry and nobility. Although the majority of its members no longer come from ancient noble families, they are admitted because of manifest merits towards the Church and the Order.

5) What are the works of the Order?

The Order of Malta works in the field of medical and social care and humanitarian aid, in over 120 countries, supported by the diplomatic relations it currently has with 106 nations. The Order also runs hospitals, medical centres, day hospitals, nursing homes for the elderly and the disabled, and special centres for the terminally ill . In many countries the Order's volunteer corps provide first aid, social services, emergency and humanitarian interventions.

Malteser International, the Order’s worldwide relief service, works in the front line in natural disasters and armed conflicts.

For over 50 years, the Order has been dealing extensively with the treatment of leprosy - a disease that unfortunately still plagues various areas of the world - through its CIOMAL foundation (International Committee of the Order of Malta). CIOMAL is also involved in the fight against disease or handicaps and has launched programmes to assist mothers and children in the third world who suffer from AIDS.

The Order is also engaged in the cultural field.

6) How is the Order Governed?

The government of the Sovereign Order of Malta has a similar structure to state governments. However, it also includes specific features associated with its nature as a religious lay order, as well as particular terminology evolved from nine centuries of history.

The head of the Order is the Grand Master who governs both as sovereign and as religious superior, and is assisted by the Sovereign Council, which he chairs. From 28 January 2017, following the resignation of Fra’ Matthew Festing from the office of Grand Master, the Sovereign Order of Malta is governed by a Lieutenant ad interim in the person of H.E. Fra’ Ludwig Hoffmann von Rumerstein. He will stay in office until the election of a new Grand Master.

The Sovereign Council is elected for a term of five years and is made up of the Grand Commander (the religious superior of the Order’s religious members);

Grand Chancellor (Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister of the Interior); Grand Hospitaller (Minister for Health and International Cooperation); Receiver of the Common Treasure (Minister for Finance), together with six other members, all elected by the Chapter General.

The life and activities of the Order of Malta are governed by its Constitution and its Code.

7. What is the international organisation of the Order?

Today, the Order is present in 54 countries. It has 6 Grand Priories, 6 Subpriories and 47 National Associations.

8) How many members does the Order have?

The Order is made up of more than 13,500 Knights and Dames.

9) Where have the main humanitarian missions been carried out in recent years?

The most significant aid projects have been carried out in Kosovo and Macedonia, Mozambique, El Salvador, India, Angola, Zimbabwe, Peru, Afghanistan, Iraq, New Orleans, Pakistan, Mexico, Haiti, and the Philippines.

10) How does one become a member of the Order?

One can become a member of the Order of Malta only by invitation. Only persons of undoubted Christian morality and practice, who have acquired merit with regard to the Sovereign Order, its institutions and its works are eligible for admission. The relevant Grand Priory or National Association is responsible for proposals of admission.

11) How does one become a volunteer?

Volunteers are most welcome. You should ask the National Association of your country. Please see the section "The Order in the World" on this website for a list of Order organisations in the various countries.

12) How are the Order's diplomatic activities conducted?

In accordance with public international law, the Order maintains bilateral diplomatic relations with 106 countries. It also has permanent observer status at the United Nations and the Commission of the European Union as well as in 16 International Organisations such as the FAO and UNESCO. Diplomatic relations allow the Order to intervene with timely and effective action in the event of natural disaster or armed conflict. Due to its neutral, impartial and non-political nature, the Order can act as a mediator whenever a State requests its intervention to settle a dispute.

13) How are the Order's activities financed?

Activities are funded essentially by its members. Funds come from private donations and vary according to different countries and situations. Resources for hospitals and medical activities usually come from agreements stipulated with the national health and social systems. The same is true for emergency services. In developing countries, activities are often backed by grants from governments, the European Commission or other international organisations. Funds also come from donations or benefactors' contributions to Order's activities.

14) Where is the Order based?

After the loss of the island of Malta, the Order settled permanently in Rome, Italy, in 1834. Its two headquarters, granted with extraterritoriality, are the Magistral Palace in Via dei Condotti 68 - where the Grand Master resides and Government Bodies meet - and the Magistral Villa on the Aventine. The latter hosts the Grand Priory of Rome, the Embassy of the Order to the Holy See and the Embassy of the Order to the Italian Republic.